a simplified version of the real neural
networks, based exclusively on connectivity properties between neurons.
CCortex adds to classical Hebbian connections a time-sensitive, analog representation of the shape of "spikes," the
pulsing patterns that enable neuron populations to communicate with each
other. This allows CCortex to tune vast
populations of neurons and the information they hold to complex spiking patterns, adding a higher level of complexity to a highly realistic simulation.
The CCortex software emulation
applies its Spiking Neuron Software
Engine to a database that has a representation of the layered distribution of
neural nets and detailed interconnections in the brain. The data closely emulates specialized regions of the human
cortex, corpus callosum, anterior commissure, amygdale, and hippocampus.
The emulation aims to actualize the
estate of each neuron and its connections several times per second, maintaining a myriad of competing spiking
patterns, while providing feedback and
limited interaction with simplified versions of other nervous and sensory systems.
Another Spam Defense
NUTS & VOLTS
According to a Reuters
news report, Yahoo (www.
yahoo.com) is intending to introduce a
software product called "Domain Keys"
that will assist developers of the Web's
major open-source Email software and
systems (including Yahoo itself) in
reducing the current plague of unsolicited commercial messages ("spam").
According to the report, this technology
would make a slight change in the way
Email works by embedding a secure, private key in all message headers. A
receiving system would compare this
private key with the presumed sender's
Internet's Domain Name System's public
key. If the public key can decrypt the private key, this will prove that the return
header is not forged, and it will be delivered. If not, the message will be
dumped. As with all proposed spam
cures, whether technological or legislative, the plan cannot totally eliminate the
problem unless it is universally adopted,
which is highly unlikely.
However, according to a Yahoo representative, "If we can get only a small
percentage of the industry to buy in, we
think it can make a dent." In addition,
Domain Keys is free and comes with no
use restrictions, so there is no overwhelming reason why an Email provider
should not adopt it.
Circuits and Devices
VGA Image Sensor Introduced
Image sensor provides full-resolution
operation at 200 frames per second. Photo
courtesy of Micron Technology, Inc.
Micron Technology, Inc. (www.
micron.com), has announced
the MT9V403 high-speed VGA image
sensor, which is capable of operating at
up to 200 frames per second (fps) at full
resolution. Using Micron's proprietary
TrueSNAP™ technology, it features a
freeze-frame electronic shutter that stops
fast motion with high accuracy.
TrueSNAP technology was created for
use in high-speed applications that allow
all pixels to be simultaneously exposed,
similar to the "global shutter" of a CCD
sensor. The device's digital interface provides flexible control of performance
parameters such as exposure time,
frame rate, and windowing functionality.
The sensor includes on-chip 10-bit analog-to-digital converters outputting
monochrome or color digital video in
659H-by-494V-pixel format at 0-200 fps
and a responsivity of 2,000 bits per lux
second. Currently, the MT9V403 is
designed for high-speed machine-vision
and special effects applications, including such things as airbag deployment
and golf swing analysis. It is intended
that the TrueSNAP technology will eventually migrate to other Micron imaging
Low-Cost Temperature Switch
Maxim Integrated Products
( www.maxim-ic.com), has introduced the MAX6516-MAX6519 line of
low-cost, analog temperature switches
that assert a logic signal when a preset
temperature is reached. The devices feature ±0.5°C typical accuracy while consuming only 20 µA of supply current.
Temperature trip thresholds are factory
set and available from + 35°C to +115°C,
in 10°C increments. Hysteresis is pin
selectable at 2°C or 10°C. No external
components are required to set the trip
threshold. These temperature switches
are designed for over/undertemperature
regulation, desktop and notebook
computers, RAID, and servers.
The MAX6516/MAX6518 provides an
active-high, push-pull output. The
MAX6517/MAX6519 provides an active-low, open-drain output. Each device also
features an analog output with an accuracy of ± 3°C (max) over the entire temperature range. The devices operate
over a temperature range of - 40°C to
+125°C, with a power-supply voltage
range of 2.7 to 5. 5 V. They are available
in a five-pin SOT23 package. Prices start
at $0.75 in quantities of 2500+.
Industry and the
Museum of Hard Disc Drives
Forget about the Louvre, the
Hermitage, or the Prado. Don't bother with the Smithsonian, the American
Museum of Science and Energy, or
England's National Museum of Science
and Industry. Put all your travel plans on
hold, because the Museum of Hard Disc
Drives will be opening during the 2004
Komputer Expo Fair in (no jokes,
please) Warsaw, Poland. After the fair,
the exhibits will be transferred to the
Silesian Museum in Katowice for viewing
by the general public and, eventually,
transferred to the headquarters of MBM