July 2016 21
watts to feed to the motor. You can see where this is going
… the motor generator system will run down in short order
instead of the perpetual motion I had hoped for.
Figure 14 illustrates a device that appears to produce
perpetual motion: the Newton’s Cradle. If you take a
steel ball from one end of the cradle, pull it back, and
release it, the successive transfers of momentum from the
balls pushes the final ball out nearly as far as the first ball
started. This ball then falls back, starting a new momentum
transfer which appears to continue for an infinite amount
of time. “Nearly” is the key here because the final ball does
not go quite as far as the first ball, but this difference is
imperceptible to the human eye (plus, the “infinite amount
of time” is actually a lot longer than the average human
attention span, so it seems infinite).
Newton’s Cradle may operate for a couple of hours,
but it eventually runs down and stops due to air friction
and the small amount of energy lost each time two steel
balls collide. Putting the cradle into a vacuum chamber
lengthens the run time, but it still eventually stops going as
do all variations of perpetual motion devices.
Besides mechanical and electrical energy, there
are also other forms of energy such as: chemical (used
in batteries); nuclear; solar; wind; tidal; hydro biomass;
fossil fuel; and geothermal. All forms of energy have
both potential and kinetic forms (for electricity, voltage is
potential energy, and kinetic energy is realized as P = I2R,
where P = power dissipated in resistance R due to the flow
of current I).
Each of the energies must obey the Law of
Conservation of Energy (a.k.a., the First Law of
Thermodynamics): “the total energy of an isolated system
remains constant — it is said to be conserved over time.
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather, it can
be transformed from one form to another or transferred.”
This means that no device can be constructed that will
generate more energy that it consumes (i.e., the useful
work done by a device is ALWAYS less than the energy
used to operate the device).
Nuclear reactors seem to
generate more energy than
they consume, but nuclear
energy generation results in
the destruction of some of the
mass of the atoms that generate
the energy baseds on Einstein’s
Equation for the Equivalence of
Mass and Energy:
E = mc2
where E = the energy generated,
I hope this gives you an insight
into the world of energy and how to
evaluate scams that claim things that are
impossible. For further research, I have
listed some Internet resources for potential
and kinetic energy in Q&A Sidelines.
Digital Clock Backlight Problems
Philips Model AJ3936/17 Clock Owners’ Manual
Miracle Energy Sources and Perpetual Motion Machines
n FIGURE 13.
n FIGURE 14.
Cradle Illustrates an Illusion of Perpetual Motion.
12. www. i15.p.lodz.pl/strony/EIC/ec/high_efficient_electric_motors.html